Sunt o persoana curioasa – pun întrebări, caut răspunsuri si câteodată investighez – vreau sa știu, sa cunosc. Îmi place sa mă documentez, sa caut si sa găsesc. Cel mai palpitant este momentul când am datele si este momentul magic de a proba ipotezele. Introduc datele in SPSS (program statistic) si aștept rezultatul – se confirma sau nu ipoteza?
Empatia parentală și dezvoltarea atașamentului în primul an de viață
Ioana Agachi, Nicoleta Capraru
Congresul National SAEL 2013, Predeal
Primul an de viață poate fi considerat baza dezvoltării emoționale a viitorului copil și chiar a viitorului adult. Factorul determinant este interacțiunea emoțională dintre sugar și părinte, pe baza căreia se formează atașamentul – un model de relație, o reprezentare a Selfului stabilă în timp. Încă de la naștere, cei mai mulți părinți încep să inițieze un mod particular de interacțiune, ce poate fi denumită empatică, în cadrul căreia încep să eticheteze experiențele sugarului și să ofere ipoteze pentru acestea. Astfel are loc debutul simbolizării verbale care are rolul de a descifra experiența implicită a sugarului ducând-o mai departe spre o semnificație explicită pe care dacă ar putea vorbi ar reuși să o denumească. Pe măsură ce crește, sugarul ajunge să recunoască o potrivire sau nepotrivire între simbolizarea externă, dată de părinții săi și propria sa experiență. Pentru a dezvolta un tipar de atașament caracterizat de siguranță, și astfel un self coeziv (Kohut 1971,1977) sugarul are nevoie ca părintele să fie deschis, disponibil, să perceapă semnalele sale și să răspundă cu afecțiune atunci când caută protecție sau alinare. Lucrarea de față are scopul de a evidenția procesul empatic care contribuie la dezvoltarea atașamentului și metode de exprimare a empatiei față de sugar. În același timp, se pun în discuție limitele și provocările care apar în acest proces, precum și importanța unui training în dezvoltarea empatiei parentale.
Bereavement Support Group – integrating positive psychotherapeutic techniques
Case Study Presentation
Abstract – 5th World Congress of Positive Psychotherapy 2010
Dealing with bereavement can be done in different ways, one of which is within the context of a group. Bereavement groups can have different of purposes: emotional support, social or educational purposes. Many studies on bereavement have shown that the grieving process is very different from one person to another, there are many variables that influence its course: age, the circumstances of death, the relationship with the deceased, previous experiences with death, culture etc. One of the most important variables is the nature of attachment, the relationship with the deceased. All these must be accountable when forming a bereavement support group.
Before starting our group (n=5, women, range=19-30 years) every participant was pre-screened during two individual sessions. The prime focus was to asses the actual phase of grieving process, the level of depression (Beck Depression Inventory), the type of attachment (The Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised Questionnaire), DAI, The Balance Model. It is important to have a homogeneous group that shares similar loses, but some differences may help the grieving process. For example the differences between recency of lost may give different perspectives on loss.
After the individual sessions, some similar features resulted: worries about whether theirexperience is normal, escape into fantasy or work/ achievement, searching for a meaning and for ways to accept loss. DAI revealed two aspects: first the idealization of the deceased, and second a tendency of identification with the deceased.
The bereavement support group was structured as closed-ended, with a number of ten sessions, each with 120 minutes in length. In the beginning of each session the participants chose one particular theme for discussion. Within the bereavement support group, the primarily role of the facilitator was to ensure the conditions for empathic understanding, unconditional acceptance and safety. The prime focus of the specialist was on emotions, on the present and on the process of differentiation – detachment. Many bereaved participants have had difficulties to be in contact with the present – living in the past or fantasizing about the future. The situational encouragement and the verbalization stages of support group are nondirective approached, using especially stories, art therapy and examples of cultural differences.
At the end of the group, the participants reported three categories of outcomes:emotional – being able to express emotions, better empathizing with others, a greater acceptance of the reality of loss; rational: better understanding of the relationship with the deceased, learning from the others ways of dealing with loss, making a sense; and social:decreasing loneliness, being more open in relationships. Another important outcome was the finding personal resources to adapt to the new reality that before the loss didn’t knew they have it.
The ecological empathy represents the primary level of empathy, specific to all people, and it can be defined as a deep form of relationship between individuals and environment. It is express as an emotional reaction toward the situation of one specific environment, in concordance with that.
This study aims to investigate if people can empathize in relationship with a natural environment, if there is an ecological empathy. One specific objective is to reveal a model of investigation of ecological empathy. So, there are two hypothesis formulated: the exposure to the positives and negatives experiences of a setting induces variations of emotional disposition in the same tonality as that specific experience; and second, there are significant differences between the level of empathic accuracy in the case of empathizing with an individual and the level of empathic accuracy in the case of ecological empathy.
There have been built two experimental situations: in the first situation, the subjects watch a film where the sea is presented changing from a positive to a negative state; in the second situation this states are inverted. Before the film, the participants complete the BMIS, and after the film they evaluate their emotional disposition on two Likert scales: one for Pleasant/Unpleasant, and one for Active/ Passive. During the film it has been applied the model of the empathic accuracy adapted after W. Ikes – the subject evaluates what he thinks the Sea felt (as emotion, intensity and tonality) in the beginning and in the end of the film. The last method there has been used consisted in composing a short story suggested by an image of the sea, for two different states from both films. This has the role of a control method for the results. For this research there have been tested 60 subjects, 30 for each experimental situation.
The negative situation: there have been registered significant variations of emotional disposition on the Pleasant/Unpleasant scale (t =-3.481, df=29, p<0.01) but contrary to the type of the experience exposed; there are no significant differences on the Active/ Passive scale (t =1.646, df=29, p>0.05).
The positive situation: there are significant variations of emotional disposition on the Pleasant/ Unpleasant scale (t =-3.320, df=29, p<0.05), and the same results for the Active/ Passive scale (t =2.339, df=29, p<0.05) in the same way as the experience presented. The statistical analysis of empathic level of accuracy led to the next results: as it was expected there are no significant differences between the level of accuracy for the ecological empathy and general empathy for the negative situation (U = 363.50, df = 29, p> 0.05). In the case of positive situation there are significant differences between the two levels of accuracy, (U = 330.50, df=29, p< 0.05), the level of accuracy in the case of ecological empathy is significant higher then the level of accuracy in the case of empathizing with a person.
Conclusion: the first hypothesis of the research is rejected, while the second is confirmed by the data. These results do not lead to a doubtless conclusion about the existence of ecological empathy, but the study revealed some aspects of this concept: the setting induces variations of emotional disposition; the people have the same skills in guessing the emotional states of a person and the emotional states of a natural setting; the level of empathic accuracy varies significant function of the emotional tonality of the experience to empathise in both cases of empathy.
COMPARACION CULTURAL SOBRE LA ADICCIÓN AL TRABAJO
Ioana AGACHI, Caroline BIOTEAU
Faculdad de psicologia, ciencias educacionales y deporte – Blanquerna, Universidad RAMON LLull
Este estudio nos parecía muy interesante porque no se habla mucho sobre la tema de adicción al trabajo, que apartenece en la patología laboral y aun no hay una definición bien comprobada. Además nos interesaba si el concepto de adicción al trabajo puede varia en función de cada cultura. El estudio tiene una hipótesis principal: “¿Hay diferencias culturales al respeto al concepto de adicción al trabajo y cuales serán estas?”. A lo largo de esta hipótesis querremos ver si hay diferencias entre la intensidad de la adicción entre los dos culturas y además si hay diferencias de genero. Para comprobar estas hipótesis hemos aplicado el testo WART sobre dos muestras, una rumana y otra francesa, cada una de 30 personas. Los resultados finales comprueban la hipótesis principal, pero no las hipótesis secundarias.